Enbridge and the lack of risk management

Suncor refinery in East-Montreal. (credit: David Vilder)

Suncor refinery in East-Montreal. (credit: David Vilder)

Enbridge 9B. This name should ring a bell as it is everywhere in the media these days.

Enbridge, based in Alberta, is seeking approval from the National Energy Board (NEB) to reverse the flow and increase capacity of the pipeline from 240 000 to 300 000 barrels a day. The 9B section in question goes from Hamilton to Montreal and is part of a broader line that links Alberta to the Atlantic. According to Enbridge this project is a “critical step in ensuring Quebec’s future in refining and petrochemical industries”; it will safeguard over a thousand permanent jobs and generate substantial taxes revenues for municipalities (Enbridge, 2012).

The project has received strong support from Suncor, who operates the Montreal-East refinery as well as from the government of Quebec (Shields, 2013). Both Enbridge and Ultramar (operating the refinery in Levis) registered lobbyists in Quebec to improve social acceptability (Shields, 2013).  Both Premier Marois and the Minister of Sustainable Development, Environment, Wildlife and Parks (MDDEFP) Yves-François Blanchet have been promising ‘consultations’ for months, yet now a few months before the first barrels are supposed to flow nothing has been done (Nadeau, 2013).

Enbridge's 9B pipeline

Enbridge’s 9B pipeline

Facing the government’s inaction, municipalities in Quebec have voiced their concern and on April 22nd 2013 the City of Montreal formally asked for an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and a public hearing to be conducted by the MDDEFP (City of Montreal, 2013). That demand has yet to be answered (Côté & Croteau, 2013).

In Canada, pipelines fall under federal competence through the NEB. Critics argue that recent amendments to the National Energy Board Act through omnibus Bill C-38 gave the NEB power to screen potential participants from public hearings (Ruby, 2013). Ottawa’s support to Enbridge is the most heard open secret, especially after the Keystone XL and Northern Gateway pipelines (Shields, 2013).

However, there is still room for leverage from the provinces. Unless deemed frivolous, article 31.3 of Quebec’s Law on the Quality of the Environment (Loi sur la qualite de l’environnement) requires the government of Quebec to hold public hearings if formally asked by a municipality, person or group. In Ontario, where line 9B also faces strong opposition, the 2006 Clean Water Act could be used to require an independent EIA. Last August, Premier Kathleen Wynne strongly came against Enbridge and threatened to do a separate EIA if the project still showed environmental concerns (CBC, 2013).

One might argue why conduct another EIA when the NEB has already done one? A brief look at the actual report gives some hints. Three issues have been voluntarily left out of the scope. First, the impact of the 12% increase of production is left unaccounted for. The same goes for the increase of CO2 emissions in Quebec that will result from the extra supply. Third, and perhaps most importantly, effects from potential spills are completely ignored (Stantec, 2013).

Whistle-blower John Bolenbaugh wades through thick mud in the Kalamazoo River looking for leftover traces of oil from the July 2010 Enbridge tar sands pipeline spill.      John W. Poole/NPR     John Bolenbaugh stands in a forested stretch of the Kalamazoo River that borders a mobile home community in Battle Creek, Mich.     John Bolenbaugh stands in a forested stretch of the Kalamazoo River that borders a mobile home community in Battle Creek, Mich.     John W. Poole/NPR     Oil rings on trees only 50 feet from the nearest home show the height of the oil and water, and its proximity to the Baker Estates Mobile Home Park in Battle Creek.     Oil rings on trees only 50 feet from the nearest home show the height of the oil and water, and its proximity to the Baker Estates Mobile Home Park in Battle Creek.     John W. Poole/NPR     Michelle BarlondSmith and her husband lived in a riverfront trailer park. BarlondSmith says the sickening fumes from the oil lasted for months.     Michelle BarlondSmith and her husband lived in a riverfront trailer park. BarlondSmith says the sickening fumes from the oil lasted for months.     John W. Poole/NPR     One of dozens of houses along the Kalamazoo River sits empty since the spill. Enbridge offered to buy up most of the property along the river immediately after the spill, and most residents sold at deflated prices to escape the area.     One of dozens of houses along the Kalamazoo River sits empty since the spill. Enbridge offered to buy up most of the property along the river immediately after the spill, and most residents sold at deflated prices to escape the area.     John W. Poole/NPR     Children fish at a newly opened recreational area built by Enbridge on the Kalamazoo River. Posted signs warn that most of the fish is not safe to eat. These children were not aware of the oil spill and were not area residents.     Children fish at a newly opened recreational area built by Enbridge on the Kalamazoo River. Posted signs warn that most of the fish is not safe to eat. These children were not aware of the oil spill and were not area residents. (John W. Poole/NPR)

Whistle-blower John Bolenbaugh wades through thick mud in the Kalamazoo River looking for leftover traces of oil from the July 2010 Enbridge tar sands pipeline spill. (credit: John W. Poole/NPR)

From an EIA perspective, a pipeline is the perfect example of the need for scenario analysis. One of the main functions of this is risk management, and Enbridge’s performance with the latter is less than mediocre. In 2010 a rupture in the company’s line 6B spilled over 3.3 million litres of oil in the Kalamazoo River in what would be the largest onland spill in the history of the Unites States (Paris, 2013). Three years after the cleanup is still not complete. What’s more, between 1999 and 2010 over 800 spills occurred on Enbridge’s pipelines and almost all of the company’s pumping stations were recently deemed non-compliant by the NEB itself (Gignac & Schepper, 2013).

One wonders why the NEB insists on leaving potential spills out of the scope when Enbridge has such a history.

Whatch this video from the Off Island Gazette where The mayor of Ste-Justine-de-Newton, Patricia Domingos, explains how Enbridge has offered communities living near its pipeline donations to improve their emergency responder services.


CBC. (2013, August 29). Pipeline   d’Enbridge : l’Ontario hausse le ton. Retrieved October 05, 2013, from CBC:   http://www.radio-canada.ca/regions/ontario/2013/08/28/016-enbridge-pipeline-wynne.shtml

City of Montreal. (2013, Avril 22). Déclaration.   Retrieved October 05, 2013, from   http://www.google.ca/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=3&cad=rja&ved=0CEMQFjAC&url=http%3A%2F%2Ffiles.newswire.ca%2F643%2FEtude_Enbridge.pdf&ei=qLhQUr6FNsni4AOAkYGADw&usg=AFQjCNGNV-nADLmC818YOeXa4vkhI1oVqQ&bvm=bv.53537100,d.dmg

Côté, C., &   Croteau, M. (2013, Octobre 02). Oléoduc 9 d’Enbridge: le débat s’enflamme.   Retrieved October 05, 2013, from La   Presse:   http://www.lapresse.ca/environnement/pollution/201310/02/01-4695449-oleoduc-9-denbridge-le-debat-senflamme.php

Enbridge. (2012). Enbridge’s Line 9 Pipeline:   Open House. Calgary: Enbridge.

Gignac, R., & Schepper, B. (2013). Projet d’oléoduc   de sables bitumineux « Ligne 9B » : le Québec à l’heure des choix. Montreal:   Institut de recherche et d’informations socio-économiques (IRIS).

Nadeau, J. (2013,   Octobre 04). Ligne 9B d’Enbridge – Il y aura consultation, assure le   ministre. Le Devoir.

Paris, M. (2013, September 2013). Enbridge’s   Kalamazoo cleanup dredges up 3-year-old oil spill. Retrieved October 06,   2013, from CBC: http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/enbridge-s-kalamazoo-cleanup-dredges-up-3-year-old-oil-spill-1.1327268

Ruby, C. (2013, August 18). Harper government   unfairly limits public input on Enbridge pipeline. Retrieved October 05,   2013, from The Star: http://www.thestar.com/opinion/commentary/2013/08/18/harper_government_unfairly_limits_public_input_on_enbridge_pipeline.print.html

Shields, A.   (2013, September 11). Inversion du pipeline – Enbridge se félicite de   l’ouverture du Québec. Le Devoir.

Stantec. (2013). Line 9B Reversal and Line 9   Capacity Expansion Project – Environmental and Socio-Economic Impact   Assessment – Addendum. Calgary: Enbridge.


Should economic development trump environmental assessment – the example of the Port-Daniel-Gascons Cement Plant

On September 3rd 2013 the Premier of Quebec, Pauline Marois, announced that the Port-Daniel-Gascons cement plant would not have to be submitted to an environmental review by the Bureau d’audiences publiques sur l’environnement (BAPE), allowing construction of the near billion dollar project to begin by the end of the year (Haroun, 2013).  The PQ government and the proponent of the plant, McInnis Cement, state that the project will meet all environmental regulations and “be a model of environmental performance” (McInnis Cement, 2013).  More importantly its construction and operation will create 400 to 600 direct and indirect jobs over the next 2 years in a chronically depressed area of the province.  Local ecologists are dismayed at the decision to exclude this project from the BAPE as it will be responsible for more than 2 million tons of Green House Gas emissions per year once in operation (Haroun, 2013), increasing Quebec’s GHG emissions from industry by 10% alone.

Yet again the role of the environmental assessment process has been misunderstood by Quebec politicians and the business community for short-lived regional economic development and short-term political gain.  While it is true that this project was submitted to the government for approval before June 22, 1995, when the environmental rules governing such developments were strengthened (Haroun, 2013), the magnitude of the impacts of this project should have played a more important role in the decision making process.

Environmental assessment is a crucial part of the decision making process for the carrying out of a project.  It is a process that is supposed to identify and predict the impacts of a project, find ways to minimize or avoid negative impacts, enhance and create positive impacts, and ensure that the environmental consequences of development decisions are fully understood (Noble, 2008).  It is a tool for a sustainable future, not a hindrance to development.  In Quebec, for over 30 years the BAPE has been tasked with conducting public reviews of projects that have significant impact on the environment (BAPE, 2009).  The BAPE procedures for public consultation are regarded as some of the best in the world – both impartial, and fair to all parties involved.

One may ask why the Port-Daniel-Gascons cement plant should be reviewed by the BAPE, as it appears to have met all legal requirements for its approval and construction.  First, it will be the largest cement plant in Quebec and one of the largest in the world.  Second, it will use fuels that will lead to a significant increase in CO2 emissions for the whole province – contrary to Quebec’s policy on GHG emission reduction (Ministère du Développement durable, de l’Environnement, de la Faune et des Parcs, 2013), and in the future they may use alternate fuels, such as tires, that will have more environmental impacts.  While the project proponent states that it meets all requirements for emissions they omit the fact that those limits are voluntary (CCME, 1998).


La Presse, 2012

Cement kilns, the heart of any cement plant, need a large supply of high energy content fuel to maintain the very high temperatures required for the conversion of limestone into the intermediate product that becomes the primary component of Portland cement (Chen et al, 2010; Van Oss & Padovani, 2002).  Every ton of cement produced needs approximately 1.25  tons of limestone, 1/3 ton of clay, 200 litres of water, and 450 kg of petroleum coke (the proposed fuel) (Chen et al, 2010).   The process produces significant emissions of particulates (dust and smoke) and gases with CO2 having the largest impact (Van Oss & Padovani, 2002).  In the case of the Port-Daniel-Gascons plant, the source fuel that McInnis has chosen, petroleum coke has a significant environmental impact of its own.  Petroleum Coke, or Petcoke, is a by-product of the refining process of petroleum (IUPAC, 1997).  It is high in carbon content making it a suitable fuel for the high temperatures (1450 to 1500 degrees Celsius) needed inside a cement kiln.  Alternative fuels for cement plants include: coal, oil, natural gas, and various waste products such as tires.  The same high temperatures allow for the destruction of hazardous waste – both biological (medical and animal processing), and chemical (Van Oss & Padovani, 2002).

The impacts of the GHG emissions alone should have warranted a review of the project, the economic and social impacts should not be overlooked.  The Port-Daniel-Gascons cement plant proposal is not new – it was first proposed in 1990, and had an abortive start to construction in the late 1990’s.  Despite the best efforts of successive provincial governments the project has not been started as the economic situation in the United States has been the main driver of the project (McInnis Cements, 2013).  Such a large cement plant cannot function economically within the Quebec economy – exporting to the world market is the only option for a viable operation.  With the current global financial and trade situation reliance on exports is a path fraught with uncertainties that offers no guarantees for the long term operation of the plant.  Might it become another Gaspésia fiasco?  For the sake of the Gaspe region one hopes not, but it is one aspect that a full BAPE review would put to rest.  Who will take responsibility for the environmental, economic, and social impacts after the political gains have long since disappeared?  Let’s hope the government sees the error of its ways and sends this project to a full review to the BAPE so that it can build a solid environmental legacy when other levels of government are failing to do that.



Bureau d’audiences publiques sur l’environnement (BAPE). (2009). Plan stratégique 2008-2013, Québec, Bureau d’audiences publiques sur l’environnement.  Retrieved from: http://www.bape.gouv.qc.ca/sections/documentation/plan_strat_2008-2013.pdf

CCME (Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment)(1998). National Emission Guideline for Cement Kilns. PN 1284. Winnipeg, Manitoba :CCME

Chen, C., Habert, G., Bouzidi, Y., & Jullien, A. (2010). Environmental impact of cement production: detail of the different processes and cement plant variability evaluation. Journal of Cleaner Production, 18(5), 478-485.

Haroun, T. (2013, September 3).  Port-Daniel-Gascons – Un projet de cimenterie d’un milliard échappe au BAPE. Ledevoir.com. Retrieved from : http://www.ledevoir.com/environnement/actualites-sur-l-environnement/386525/un-projet-de-cimenterie-d-un-milliard-echappe-au-bape

IUPAC ( 1997). Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the “Gold Book”). Compiled by A. D. McNaught and A. Wilkinson. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.

McInnis Ciment (2013). Retrieved from http://cimentmcinnis.com/projet-cimenterie-ciment-mcinnis

Ministère du Développement durable, de l’Environnement, de la Faune et des Parcs (2013), Inventaire québécois des émissions de gaz à effet de serre en 2010 et leur évolution depuis 1990, Québec, ministère du Développement durable, de l’Environnement, de la Faune et des Parcs, Direction des politiques de la qualité de l’atmosphère, 20 p.

Noble, Bram. (2008). Introduction to Environmental Impact Assessment: A Guide to Principles and Practice, Second Edition. Toronto: Oxford University Press

Van Oss, H., & Padovani, A. C. (2002). Cement manufacture and the environment. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 6(1), 89-106.


Lack of Environmental Assessment at the municipal level in Québec and Canada

Update: For more details about this story check out this article in the Vaudreuil-Soulanges Gazette: http://www.gazettevaudreuilsoulanges.com/2013/10/23/trees-an-election-issue-says-tpac-member/ and Nico Ahn’s response on his blog: http://nicoahn.ca/essays/2013/10/response-and-follow-up-to-the-article-trees-an-election-issue-says-tpac-member/

As a future environmental professional, I am already trying to get involved and gain experience in planning and assessment. I am currently appointed as a citizen member to the Advisory Committee on Urban Planning in the Town of Pincourt (Québec), which advises the town council on planning and land use topic. Planning Committees with citizen involvement (limited public participation) have been in place in the province of Québec in 1985 [1]. Through my involvement in this committee I was hoping to be able to make my town’s environment more sustainable for its citizens, however as I am noticing more clearly this is a very hard feat, as the municipal by-laws and provincial legislation do not provide any tools to further environmental protection and sustainable development in urban planning.

The role and mandate of the committee is to study projects at the discretion of the town council, and to study applications for certain projects and subsequently form recommendations to the town council. It should be noted that the committee has no actual decision-making power. [2]

See interactive map on Google Maps (http://goo.gl/maps/80rHL)

Figure 1: Development Site in Pincourt (QC). See interactive map on Google Maps (http://goo.gl/maps/80rHL)

The committee convenes whenever matters arise that require its attention. This summer, two projects were studied: the development of two hardware stores (Patrick Morin Inc. [3] and RONA [4, 5]) in a wooded area of the town, which separated the city’s residential areas from a major national rail (CN/CP) and road transportation corridor (Highway 20) (see figure 1 for an overview).

Different than my colleagues on the committee, with backgrounds in municipal politics and planning, I approach the committee’s topics differently. Having a background in environmental impact assessment and sustainability science, I see potential issues with these projects. I point out the loss of important ecosystem services, changes in local microclimates and other potential impacts that will potentially affect residents through increases in noise, air and light pollution [6, 7] that will have short and long term effects on the town’s citizens.

As the committee analysed the developments’ architectural and landscaping plans to make recommendations to the town council, I tried to recommend how these plans could be improved or adapted to reduce or mitigate some of these environmental impacts. Even when my fellow committee members agree with my suggestions, we end up not adding them to our resolution for the town council. The key issue is that there is no legal basis for the municipality to demand the developer to make changes to his project to reduce the impacts. Like in many other municipalities, the by-laws simply do not exist.

In the resolution for the RONA project in Pincourt, I managed “to suggest that the developer keep the undeveloped portions of his project wooded” [5]. The keyword here is “to suggest”. We had no legal basis for making this an obligation for the developer. While the land use planning legislation in Québec has provisions allowing municipalities protect forests [8], these are not enacted in Pincourt. Figure 2 shows the site after initial logging has taken place. On Google Maps StreetView you can see how the site looked pre-logging (http://goo.gl/maps/1qg9x).

Figure 2: Photograph of the site by Nico Ahn. Too see the way this site looked before looking visit Google Streetview (http://goo.gl/maps/1qg9x).

Figure 2: Panoramic photograph of the RONA site by Nico Ahn. Too see the way this site looked before looking visit Google Streetview (http://goo.gl/maps/1qg9x). Update: The wooded area on the left of the picture has now also been logged.

Everything that happened in Pincourt was legal; the forest was zoned commercially giving the developer licence to destroy the ecosystem. Current EIA laws and regulations in Québec do not require assessments for these types of commercial development projects; neither do municipal planning processes seem to account for the environmental impacts. While a development like a RONA and Patrick Morin may not have environmental impacts on a provincial or national scale, and thus may not be of concern at a Bureau d’audiences publiques sur l’environnement (BAPE; Québec) or the Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency (CEAA) level, they do have impacts on a local or regional scale.

Taking these impacts into consideration could be improved by implementing EIA-like processes at the local and regional scale, similar to the way German local authorities can be the competent authorities for EIAs on local projects [9]. In Germany, the competent authority overseeing the EIA process is the municipal, regional, state (“Land”) or federal authority that is concerned with issuing the project permits [10, 11]. This ensures that assessments are dealt with at the scale where it is most relevant, thus taking a decentralized approach to impact assessment. The construction a parking lot larger than 1 ha, for example, requires a Federal EIA under German law, which would however be dealt with by a municipal planning authority (see the inclusion list in the appendix of the translated German EIA Act [12]).

In Canada or Québec, such a project would not require an EIA. And that makes sense the way the system is currently set up to work. If the CEAA or the BAPE were to conduct EIA reviews of every municipal project in Canada, nothing would ever get built, because these agencies would likely be backlogged. If municipalities and regions would be given the mandate, obligation and funding to oversee environmental assessments for local and regional projects, we would decentralize the EIA process and be deal with it at a more relevant scale. We could then also expand the list of projects requiring assessments. To ensure the quality of these EAs, the provincial and or federal agencies would take an auditing and advisory role. Public participation would also become even more relevant at such that scale [13].

However such processes are not in place in municipalities like Pincourt. Municipal development decisions lack of environmental assessment considerations in. In order to improve these trends I suggest two potential solutions:

  1. by-laws (and federal/provincial laws) need to be adapted to implement local and regional EIA processes and to give the municipalities more control over their environment, and
  2. as municipalities key motivation to continually develop their territory is to increase property tax revenues and not environmental conservation, the property tax system should be updated to place a value on ecosystem services [14, 7]. This would allow towns to gain tax revenue even from undeveloped land, which may not have an ‘economic value’ but an ‘environmental value’.


[1] Ministère des Affaires municipales, des Régions et de l’Occupation du territoire, “Planning and development powers in Québec,” 2010. [Online]. Available: http://www.mamrot.gouv.qc.ca/pub/amenagement_territoire/urbanisme/plan_development_powers_angl.pdf. [Accessed 28 September 2013].
[2] Ville de Pincourt, Règlement relatif au comité consultatif d’urbanism [N° 782], Pincourt: Ville de Pincourt, 2007.
[3] Patrick Morin Inc., “Patrick Morin s’installe à Pincourt,” 12 July 2013. [Online]. Available: http://www.patrickmorin.com/10-nouvelle-patrick-morin-s-installe-a-pincourt.html. [Accessed 03 October 2013].
[4] RONA Inc., “RONA Our Footprint,” 2013. [Online]. Available: http://www.rona.ca/corporate/corporate-responsibility. [Accessed 03 October 2013].
[5] Ville de Pincourt, “Résolution 2013-09-277,” in Procès-verbal (10 septembre 2013), Pincourt, Ville de Pincourt, 2013, p. 6794.
[6] P. Bolund and S. Hunhammar, “Ecosystem services in urban areas,” Ecological Economics, vol. 29, pp. 293-301, 1999.
[7] R. Costanza, R. d’Arge, R. d. Groot, S. Farberk, M. Grasso, B. Hannon, K. Limburg, S. Naeem, R. V. O’Neill, J. Paruelo, R. G. Raskin, P. Suttonkk and M. v. d. Belt, “The value of the world’s ecosystem services and natural capital,” Nature, vol. 387, pp. 253-260, 1997.
[8] Gouvernement du Québec, An Act respecting Land Use Planning and Development [RSQ, c. A-19.1], Éditeur officiel du Québec, 2013.
[9] M. Graggaber and W. Pistecky, “The implementation of the Environmental Impact Assessment on the basis of precise examples,” EU IMPEL, Nicosia, 2012.
[10] Niedersächsisches Ministerium für Umwelt, Energie und Klimaschutz, “Die Umweltverträglichkeitsprüfung,” 2013. [Online]. Available: http://www.umwelt.niedersachsen.de/portal/live.php?navigation_id=2531&article_id=8964&_psmand=10. [Accessed 05 October 2013].
[11] M. Sauer, “Report of Germany on the implementation of the convention on environmental impact assessment in a transboundary context,” United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, Geneva, 2010.
[12] Federal Republic of Germany, “Environmental Impact Assessment Act,” 2001-2004. [Online]. Available: http://www.bmu.de/fileadmin/bmu-import/files/pdfs/allgemein/application/pdf/uvpg.pdf.
[13] N. Munier, “EIA and Urbanization,” in Multicriteria Environmental Assessment, New York, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004, pp. 197-236.
[14] R. Janda and S. Kurtz, “Accounting for the new philanthropy,” 04 November 2011. [Online]. Available: http://www.theglobeandmail.com/life/giving/accounting-for-the-new-philanthropy/article4182642/. [Accessed 03 October 2013].

Tursujuq National Park; a teamwork success under the JBNQA

On December 14th 2012, Minister of Sustainable Development, Environment, Wildlife and Parks, Yves-François Blanchet, confirmed that the Quebec government would establish the Tursujuq National Park. The future park will be the biggest national park of eastern North America, with an area equivalent to more than 54 times the area of Montreal Island. Covering 26 000 km2, it will triple the network of Quebec’s national parks.


Aerial winter view of Tursujuq National Park. Photo credit: Nunavik Parks

A glance of the ecological and cultural values of Tursujuq

Tursujuq will be located northern Quebec in the transition zone between boreal forest and tundra. Adjacent to Hudson Bay is Lake Guillaume-Delisle, a brackish source of tidal water hosting seal and beluga population. The Hudsonian cuestas, formed by erosion, surround the lake and offer an impressive geological panorama. The Lake à l’Eau-Claire, approximately in the middle of the park limits, was created by a meteorite impact and is the second biggest lake in Quebec with an area of 1,226 km2. Tursujuq National Park will protect several valuable ecological components of northern biodiversity and habitats, including the threatened harbor seal population, plus several species like beluga whales, harlequin ducks, short-eared owls, a unique population of landlocked salmon and over 80 rare plant species.


Physiography map of Tursujuq National Park. Photo credit: Nunavik Parks

Vestiges of human occupation dating back to more than 3,000 years have been found within the park, witnessing presence of Inuit and Cree on the territory. Those vestiges also include more recent trading posts of the Hudson’s Bay Company from the 18th and 19th centuries. Today’s Inuit and Cree inhabitants have good traditional knowledge of the territory and many still live directly from the abundant resources of the area.

Collaboration and co-management

The initial project by the Quebec Government was only covering 15 000 km2. Hydro Québec (HQ) was projecting a 1000 megawatts hydro-electricity central on the Nastapoka River, located north of the previous projected park. The Inuit, the Cree and the environmentalists requested the additional conservation of the Nastapoka watershed. Following a four years process of negotiation and consultation, HQ renounced to the territory and roughly 10 000 km2 were added to the park. The non-negligible added protected area is well illustrated in this documentary on Plan Nord (specifically at 35 min 15 sec). Tursujuq landscape can be seen between minute 32:15 and 38:30 of the following link.

The creation of Tursujuq National Park is a decision unanimously praised. Its establishment emerged from collaboration between the Quebec Government, the Aboriginal communities of Umiujaq, Kuujjuarapik, Whapmagoostui and Inukjuak, the Makivik Corporation and the Kativik Regional Government (KRG). Initially, $3 million will be invested to build basic infrastructure (reception + access road). The KRG will leads the park’s management, with a capital expenditure budget estimated at $8 million over five years, in addition to a budget to manage the park. As the president of the KRG Maggie Emudluk stated (MSDEWP 2012): “ The new park will protect not only the environment but also areas that are essential to the traditional ways of life of the Inuit and the Cree. A determined, united pressure group headed by our communities and regional organizations working with conservation groups has fulfilled its mission, which will strengthen our confidence in the efficacy of the environmental protection regime established under the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement (JBNQA).”

Bardati, 2009, Environmental Impact assessment in Quebec, Environmental Impact Assessment: Practice and Participation, Hanna, K. S., Oxford University Press, NY, 380-401

Kativik Environmental Advisory Committee, 2012, Kativik Environmental Quality Commission http://www.keac-ccek.ca/en/environmental-procedure/screening-committee/kativik-environmental-commission.php

Kativik Regional Government (KRG), 2012, Renewable Resources, Environment, Land and Parks, http://www.krg.ca/en/general-information-renew

Minister of Sustainable Development, Environment, Wildlife and Parks (MSDEWP), 2012, Parc national Tursujuq project, Government of Quebec http://www.mddep.gouv.qc.ca/parcs/tursujuq/index_en.htm

Nunavik Parks, 2012, Tursujuq, Status Report, Parcs Quebec and KRG, http://www.nunavikparks.ca/en/parks/tursujuq/status-report.htm

Radio-Canada, 2012, Video, Plan Nord: les grandes manoeuvres, Découverte, Saison 2012, episode 13, Canada, http://www.tou.tv/decouverte/S2012E13

Radio-Canada, 2012, Video, Tursujuq, un nouveau parc national, Téléjournal midi, 15 décembre 2012, Canada, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rH9wn2G9a0A